The Republic of Ecuador
Ecuador, located astride the equator on Pacific Coast in South America, has an area of 283,560
sq. km. and a population of 17.64 million (2020). Capital: Quito. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy but there are appreciable deposits of minerals and petroleum. It is the world’s largest exporter of bananas and balsa wood. Coffee, cacao and shrimp are also valuable exports.
What is now Ecuador formed part of the northern Inca Empire until the Spanish conquest in 1533. Quito became a seat of Spanish colonial government in 1563 and part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada in 1717. The territories of the Viceroyalty – New Granada (Colombia), Venezuela, and Quito – gained their independence between 1819 and 1822 and formed a federation known as Gran Colombia.
When Quito withdrew in 1830, the traditional name was changed in favor of the “Republic of the Equator.” Between 1904 civilian governance in 2004, the period has been marred by political instability. Protests in Quito have contributed to the mid-term ouster of Ecuador’s last three democratically elected Presidents. In 2007, a Constituent Assembly was elected to draft a new constitution; Ecuador’s twentieth since gaining independence.
Ecuador has twenty-four provinces, spanning from its four territory types; Costal, Amazon, Andes (Mountain) , Galapagos (Islands).
Provinces are listed with its own capital.
- Azuay (Cuenca)
- Bolívar (Guaranda)
- Cañar (Azogues)
- Carchi (Tulcán)
- Chimborazo ( Riobamba)
- Cotopaxi (Latacunga)
- El Oro (Machala)
- Esmeraldas (Ciudad Esmeraldas)
- Galápagos (Puerto Baquerizo Moreno)
- Guayas (Guayaquil)
- Imbabura (Ibarra)
- Loja (Loja)
- Los Rios (Babahoyo)
- Manabí (Portoviejo)
- Morona Santiago (Macas)
- Napo (Tena)
- Orellana ( Francisco de Orellana)
- Pastaza (Puyo)
- Pichincha (Quito)
- Santa Elena (Santa Elena)
- Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas (Santo Domingo)
- Sucumbíos (Nueva Loja)
- Tungurahua (Ambato)
- Zamora Chinchipe (Zamora)
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